Learning the Way of God More Perfectly
King James Bible 1611 Then and Now
Absolute Music for an Absolute God
Part II
History of Japheth Music
Revelation 4:11 - Your music should please God, not yourself!
Philippians 4:8 - Your music should fit this criteria!
See Introduction for Part I and some short history of Ham and Shem's music.

A detailed study of the music of Japheth is an absolutely fascinating study - especially for a musician who has been taught this stuff in a general fashion in their music appreciation classes - or in their own studies as they listen and/or perform music from Japheth / European, etc.

However, this is only a very generalized outline from the audio sermon - I would encourage you to listen to the audio to get the 'preaching' behind this overview!  If you are one with little or no knowledge or understanding of music, may I encourage you to consider the warning in Ephesians 4:17-21 and make an effort to study music.  Who is it you would rather please, Satan, yourself or God Himself?

The key here is to know that God promised to ENLARGE Japheth, and that He did - even in the music realm.
Let's see how God did it!

Here are some historical facts:
P.S.  If any of this doesn't make sense to you as not being a musician, listen to the audio - I "try" to help it make sense to you.

Musical Characteristics in the days of Antiquity...  ? - A.D. 200 from a 'secular' music website.

One can see here that my preaching on music from Shem, Ham and Japheth is supported by historical fact.
There is no 'racial' overtones in this series - all just historical fact found in most textbooks.

Read on:

Contributions of Greek Music:

You will only continue to see how God enlarged the music of Japheth, unlike Shem and Ham, which never did give God His glory nor was there any development or enlargement - it was only whereabouts it was located as it traveled about and perverted the world with it's ungodly music over time.

The Development of Japheth

Dark Ages
Popular / Today

These dates coincide with a fascinating history of art and Bible, as well.  But we will stick to music.  And even though, there are many details here, we only mention a few of them in the audio - and only in a manner to help us see and understand that as there was a need for development, it did take place, small portion at a time.

Dark Ages

(called Middle Ages these days)
A Few World Events:
 325 - Constantine declares "Christianity" the official religion of the Roman Empire
 480 - ca547 - Benedict, founder of Benedictine monasticism
 560-604 - Pope Gregory
 633 - Council of Toledo
 912-973 - Otto the Great crowned first Emperor of the Holy Romand Empire in 962
 1305-1378 - Babylonian Captivity
 1337-1453 - 100 Years War
 1348-1350 - Black Plague of Europe

Musical Characteristics:
Early Medieval - A.D. 500-850
 Modal (based on the church modes)
 Normally a cappella
 Used free and flexible prose rhythms
 Limited range
 Sung in Latin
 Uses a special neumatic notation

 Metrical (mostly in triple meter)
 Stronger, more regular rhythm than plainsong
 Used short recurrent rhythmic patterns
 Clear phrase and sectional structure with repeated sections and refrains
 Modal (favored Aeolian and Ionian)
 In the Vernacular
 Wider range of subjects than plainsong
 Found mostly in France and Germany

 Gospel Recitation Passion (300-1100)
 Byzantine Chant (330)
 Ambrosian Chant (360)
 Gallican Chant (500)
 Mozarabic Chant (600)
 Gregorian Chant (600)
 Plainsong Mass (ca 600-1100)

Virtually all historical records of music during this time concerns sacred music, which would mean Catholic.  There are no major composers or works of a secular nature from this period.

Romanesque Style - A.D. 850-1175
 Continuation of many characteristics from Early Medieval  Era
 Invention of musical notation  Neumatic notation
 Staff-notation devised for Plainsong
 Composition replaced improvisation
 2-part music common
 4-line staff used
 modern methods of solmization were employed

 Plainsong Mass
 Organum  Parallel/Strict

Gothic Era - A.D. 1100-1430
 Vocal music organized according to text
 Considerable use of contrary motion and elaborate melismaticism
 Vocal characteristics present in instrumental music
 Rhythmic modes utilized to solve rhythm problems
 Harmony was a result of polyphonic texture, not chords
 Texture was vastly polyphonic (3- and 4-part)
 Instruments were used to double vocal parts
 Mensural notation remained in use until around 1600
 Troubadors appear in Germany and call themselves minnesingers

Ars Antiqua (1175-1315)
 Tempus Perfectum common
 Mainly 3-part
 Use of hocket
 Choir book
 Rapid transitions in music notation and theory
 Rhythmic modes
 Franconian Notation

Ars Nova (1315-1430)
 Musical leadership shared by France and Italy
 Tempus Imperfectum is most common
 Rhythmic modes abandoned for more complex, diversified rhythms
 More secular than sacred
 Cantus firmus was less often used
 Landini Cadence
 5-line staff is common
 Thirds and sixths treated as dissonances
 Mannered notation used
 Italian style differed in that:  It did not employ cantus firmus
 Was less rhythmically complex
 Employed simpler textures
 Introduced a characteristic florid vocal style

 Plainsong Mass
 Plainsong Passion
 Sequence/Trope (Dies Irae)
 Organum  Parallel/Strict
 Notre Dame/Measured

 Liturgical Drama
 Monophonic Conductus
 Laudi Spirituali
 estampie, danse royale, istanpitta
 Polyphonic Conductus
 Motet (isorhythmic)

A Few World Events:
 Feudalism replaced by urban culture!
 1415 - John Hus burned at the stake!
 1454 - Invention of movable type!
 1492 - "Discovery of Americas"
 Colonization of the Western Hemisphere
 1500 - Humanistic Movement
 1517 - Martin Luther's 95 Thesis which started the Protestant Reformation
 1520 - Luther excommunicated from the church

 da Vinci
 Sir Francis Drake

Musical Characteristics
 3-part polyphony
 Melodic and rhythmic interest in top voice
 Solo songs with textless instrumental parts below
 Melodic progression characterized by numerous thirds
 Use of triple meter
 Homophonic polyphony (chordal or familiar style)
 Fauxbourdon (Burgundian) and English Descant
 Landini cadence still common
 Imitation used infrequently
 Cantus firmi used less frequently than Franco-Flemish music
 Secular continued with polytextuality
 Franco-Flemish (or Netherlands) style spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries
 Exemplified, dignified and sophisticated musical techniques
 4-part writing (added part below the tenor, melody on top, created conventional parts:  superius
 Use of complete triads
 Balanced polyphony - stylistic equality among parts
 Development of contrapuntal techniques  Imitation
 Imitation important
 New types of canon
 Pairing of voices (duet style)
 Use of combined styles within the same piece (alteration of chordal and contrapuntal passages)
 Fauxbourdon and Landini cadences disappeared
 Authentic and plagal cadences most common
 musica reservata initiated by composers
 Continued spread of Franco-Flemish style throughout Europe
 Development of other national schools
 Vocal polyphony attained the highest level of perfection
 Highest development of a cappella for church music
 Vocal style was dominant, but independent instrumental styles were beginning to emerge
 Religious music was still the dominate over secular music, but this was decreasing
 Religious music still dominated by the Roman Catholic Church, but protestant music began to increase in Germany, France and England
 Secular music increased in importance under the patronage system of the nobility
 Major/minor tonality gaining in importance, but modality still influenced both sacred and secular music
 Development of music printing
 Triad is the basic unit of composition
 Dissonances were prepared and resolved
 Generally balanced polyphony with equality of parts
 Use of both homophonic and contrapuntal textures in same piece
 Use of cori spezzati

Secular Music
 Gaining in importance because of:  Growing spirit of secularization
 Patronage System of the nobility
 Flourishing of poetry

 Intended as entertainment for amateur performers
 Composed and performed as chamber music for small ensembles
 Italian secular music influenced the French, German and English secular schools
 1565 - the use of castrati emerged as a way to preserve the sound of a women's voice in Italian music since St. Paul's dictum prohibited women from performing on stage or in churches
 1588 - the English Madrigal School is firmly established, led by Thomas Morley, and produces some of the most delightful secular music concerning love and/or grief
 1590-1604 - The camerata was established by Count Giovanni de Bardi

Roman Catholic Music
 Equality of parts
 5-part texture most common, but ranged from 3- to 8-parts or more
 Triad is basic unit of composition
Use of both homophonic and contrapuntal textures in same piece   Treatment of dissonant intervals was strict and limited to a few devices  passing tones
 neighboring tones

 Music was written a cappella, although instruments were most likely used in performance
 mostly diatonic, but chromaticism began to appear
 Continued use of Latin, but some places outside Italy began to use the vernacular
 1562 - Pope Pius IV's Counter-Reformation
 1574 - use of castrati became common and were used in the Sistine Chapel choir

 Liturgical Drama
 Mass  Prolation
 Cantus Firmus
 Sine nomine
 Freely composed
 Motet  isorhythmic
 Declamatory (England)
 Choral melodic
 Concerti Ecclesiastici
 Polyphonic chanson
 Canzone  frottola
 Suite  pavan

Protestant Music
 Germany  The chorale was the most important new musical contribution of the Lutheran Reformation
 Chorales at first were monophonic, then set in simple 4-part harmony with chorale melody in the uppermost voice

 France  Biblical psalms were translated into French verse
 Unison congregational singing

 England  The Anglican Church adapted many of the styles of the Roman Catholic Church
 The Anglican Service took the place of the Catholic Mass
 Anglican chant was largely based on Catholic plainsong
 English text was used in place of Latin
 Metrical organization was given to the melodies

Composers and Major Works
 Gilles Binchois (1400-1460)
 Guillaum Dufay (1400-1474) Mass Se la face ay pale (1460)
 Johannes Ockeghem (ca 1410-1496) Requiem Mass
 Josquin Des Prez (1440-1521) often called the Prince of Music  L'Omme armé - Mass
 Sine nomine - Mass
 Faysans regres - Mass
 Absalon, fili mi - motet

 Heinrich Finck (1445-1527)
 Jacob Obrecht (1450-1505)
 Adrian Willaert (1490-1562)
 Christopher Tye (1497-1573) The Acts of the Apostles
 Jacob Arcadelt (1505-1568)
 Thomas Tallis (1505-1585)  Spem in alium non habui song of 40 parts for 5-part choirs
 Lamentations of Jeremiah

 Andrea Gabrieli (1510-1586)
 Phillip de Monte (1521-1603)
 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)  Pope Marcellus Mass - written within the rigid requirements of Pope Pius IV's Counter-Reformation and is credited for saving polyphony
 First Book of Masses (1554)
 Settings of the song of Solomon (1584)
 Harmonized versions of the Latin Hymnal (1589)

 Orlando Lassus (1532-1594)
 Giulo Caccini (ca 1546-1618)  Euridice (1600) opera
 Le nouve musiche

 Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)
 Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1612) Symphoniae sacre
 Carlo Gesualdo (1560-1613)
 John Bull (1562-1628)
 Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625)

 John Hus (1373-1415) Led a Pre-Reformation movement; resulted in banishment of polyphonic music and instruments in church music until mid-16th c.
 Martin Luther (1483-1546)  Formula missae (1523) Luther's first liturgy
 EIN FESTE BURG - chorale tune
 Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
 Thomas Cranmar (1489-1556) First Book of Common Prayer (1549)
 Hans Sachs (1494-1576)
 Johann Walter (1496-1570) Gesangbüchlein (1524)
 Clément Marot (1497-1544)
 Claude Goudimel (ca 1505-1572)
 John Calvin (1509-1564)
 Louis Bourgeois (ca 1510 - ca 1561)  OLD 100TH OLD 134TH PSALM 42
 John Marbeck (ca 1510 - ca 1585) The Booke of Common Praier Noted (1549)
 Paul Eber (1511-1569)
 Anabaptist and Moravian movements begin
 Myles Coverdale (ca 16th c.) Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes (1539)


A Few World Events
 Reign of James I (1603-1625)
 1607 - Jamestown Colony founded
 Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
 1620 - Pilgrims arrive at Cape Cod (Mayflower Compact)
 Reign of Charles I (1625-1649) executed in 1649
 1626 - Purchase of Manhattan Island
 Reign of Louis XIV (1645-1715)
 English commonwealth (1649-1660)
 1660 - English Restoration
 Reign of Charles II (1660-1685)
 1666 - Great fire of London
 1670 - Pietism began
 1692 - Salem witchcraft trials
 1712 - Toleration Act in England
 Great Awakening (1720-1740s)

 Van Dyck
 El Greco

Musical Characteristics
 Vast increase in importance of secular art music
 Use of absolute music
 Basso continuo is one of the characteristic sounds
 Homophonic styles (greatly responsible for vertical analysis)
 Concept of major/minor tonalities emerges
 Polyphonic texture is prominent and common
 Tendency to monothematic compositions
 Melodic phrases often not clearly defined - tendency toward continuous motion, employing weakened cadences through which the melodic line moves with little or no hesitation
 Elaborate decoration of melodies (ornaments) is prevalent
 Sequence becomes common and is used considerably
 Functional harmony develops
 Authentic cadences replaced modal cadences
 Chromaticism played a more prominent role
 Systematic modulation became commonplace
 Chord structure and progressions important  Counterpoint
 Doctrine of Affections
 Free use of dissonance
 Melodic and harmonic sequences
 Basic triads and inversions are most common, but 7th chords also used (9th, 11th and 13th chords are virtually nonexistent)
 Metric beats are usually very strict in tempo with a minimum variance except for some cadential ritard, rallentando and occasional accelerando
 Emphasis on continuity of flow, repetition of rhythmic patterns and prominence of the metric pulse
 Ensemble size is usually quite small (choirs of 12-25 not uncommon)
 Increase in importance of instrumental music
 Instrumental groups also abbreviated in number
 Inclination to contrast large sounds against small sounds (concerto grosso)
 Dynamics used to create contrasts
 Terraced dynamics are an integral part and vital to interpretation
 Improvisation played a very important role in performances
 A revolt against Renaissance polyphony by the Camerata which instigated monody, recitative and opera
 1631 - professional female singers appear for the first time on the English stage in the production of Chloridia, a court masque produced by Ben Johnson and indigo Jones

Rococo (1690-1760)
 French style (also called style galant)
 Light texture
 Elaborate, ornamented melody
 Periodic phrasing with frequent cadences
 Simple harmony
 Free treatment of dissonances
 Kept some Baroque traits
 Motivic play
 Linear bass lines

 Used a reduced scale performance
 Chamber ensembles
 Opéra-ballet works

Pre-Classical (1740-1770)
 Transition period from Baroque to Classical
 No clear distinctions can be drawn between Baroque, Pre-Classical and early Classical music
 Some composers often wrote in all three styles
 Many musicologists now prefer to use the term early Classical when referring to this time period

 Plain-chant Musical
 Chorale Prelude
 Passion  Oratorio
 Comic Opera (first appeared in 1639)
 Masque (mask)
 Baroque Sonata
 Baroque Concerto

World Events
 The Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
 Mannheim School
 French-Indian Wars in America
 7 Years' War (1756-1763)
 1760 - Industrial Revolution begins
 1769 - Watt's steam engine patented
 1771 - first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica
 American Revolution (1775-1783)
 1775 - electric battery invented by Volta
 1776 - American Declaration of independence
 1787 - French Revolution
 1787 - Edict of Toleration (France)
 1788 - steamboat invented by John Fitch
 1789 - George Washington elected first President of the United States of America
 1791 - American Bill of Rights
 1796 - first vaccination
 1799 - Great Revival in America
 1803 - Louisiana Purchase
 1804 - Napoleon crowned Emperor
 War of 1812
 1819 - first steamship crosses the Atlantic


Scientific Achievements
 Discoveries  oxygen
 electromagnetic induction
 ultraviolet rays
 Development of the first vaccine

 Steam engine
 Spinning jenny
 Cotton gin
 1821 - electric motor and generator invented by Faraday

Musical Characteristics
 Codification of patent formal procedures (e.g. Sonata, Sonata Allegro)
 Modified use of contrapuntal techniques
 Sequence use continues and is expanded
 Polythematic compositions
 Homophonic/Choral style was used most often
 Symmetrical phrase structure
 Phrases are apt to be short and composed of melodic formulas of a few notes that reach frequent caesuras and cadences which are more defined melodically
 Emphasis on melody
 Ornamentation continues but it is not an integral part of the style
 basso continuo is virtually abandoned
 Major/minor tonalities continue with little change
 "Functional harmony" continues
 Tends to be simple with considerable emphasis on progressions of I-IV-V or I-ii-V
 Slow harmonic rhythm
 Piano becomes most important instrument
 Orchestra further developed and codified with standard scoring
 Use of Alberti Bass
 Variety of dynamics and greater indications in scores
 Rhythmic changes are limited (rarely tempo rubato )
 Repeated notes
 Reiteration of and emphasis on metric pulse is varied and somewhat lessened
 Occasional pauses and rhythmic rest-points are common
 Metric pulse is more likely to be lightly and quietly present (but not emphasized)

Classical Church Music
 Decline in Italy
 Preaching became more important
 Viennese composers writing Catholic music
 No true Lutheran composers - they had no uniform worship practices
 Enlightenment affected it
 Tends to be conservative
 Certain Baroque style aspects were held over  figured bass
 fugal endings
 stile antico

Aspects Affecting Classical Music
 Cosmopolitan Age - sought one international style
 Humanitarian Age  social reforms
 longing for a universal brotherhood (e.g. Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 and Mozart's Magic Flute

 Popularization Age  rise of public concerts
 amateur works
 beginnings of music journalism and periodicals
 first music histories written

Prosaic Age
 good taste
 proportion and elegance
 music was to be an image of reality  easy to understand
 listener should not be forced to think

 Plain-chant Musical
 Modern Concerto
 Sonata Form
 String Quartet
 Chamber Music
 Modern Sonata
 Opera  Comic

 Composers and Major Works
 Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)
 Orfeo (1762)
 Alceste (1767)
 Johann Stamitz (1714-1788)
 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1715-1757)
 Franze Joseph Haydn (1733-1809)
 Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782)
 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
 Muzio Clementi (1752-1832)
 Maria Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842)
 Samuel Wesley (1766-1837)
 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
George F Handel (1685-1759)

 John Newton (1725-1807)
 William Cowper (1731-1800) Olney Hymns (1799)
 Martin Madan (1726-1790)  A Collection of Psalms and Hymns (1760)
 A Collection of Psalms and Hymn Tunes (1769)
 Augustus Toplady (1740-1778)  Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship (1776)
 "Rock of Ages"
 William Billings (1746-1800)  The New England Psalm Singer (1770) canonic fuging pieces
 The Singer Master's Assistant (1778)
 The Psalm Singer's Amusement (1781)
 The Suffolk Harmony (1786)
 The Continental Harmony (1794)
 John Rippon (1751-1836)  A Selection of Hymns (1787)
 Selection of Psalms and Hymn Tunes (1791)
 1756 - Psalmondia Germanica (Lutheran)
 Fuging Contributions  Urania (James Lyon, 1761)
 American Harmony (Daniel Bayley, 1769)
 Oliver Holden (1765-1844)  CORONATION
 Union Harmony (1793)
 Folk Hymnody  Divine Hymns or Spiritual Songs (Joshua Smith, 1784)
 Christian Harmony (Jeremiah Ingalls, 1805) "I Love Thee, I Love Thee"
 Bishop Reginald Heber (1783-1826)
 1795 - A Hymn and Prayer Book (Kunze, American Lutheran in English)
 Shaped Note Books  The Easy Instructor (William Smith and William Little, 1802)
 Musical Primer (Law, 1803)
 Repository of Sacred Music (John Wyeth, 1813)
 Southern Shaped-Note Collections  Kentucky Harmony (Ananias Davisson, 1816)
 Missouri Harmony (Allen Carden, 1820)
 1803 - Die Kleine Geistliche (American Mennonite)
 1813 - The British Province Hymnal (American Moravian in English)

Interesting note:
Handel's Oratorios:  Esther; Deborah; Athalia; Alexander; Saul; Israel in Egypt; Ode for St . Cecilia's Day; L'Allegro II Pensieroso Moderato; Messiah; Samson; Semele; Joseph and His Brethren; Belshazzar; Judas Maccabaeus; Alexander Balus; Joshua; Solomon; Theodora; Jeptha; Triumph of Love and Truth.

World Events
 Lutheran Confessional Revival
 1830 - first railroad
 1831 - Copyright Act of 1831 (first to include music)
 Oxford Movement (1831-1861)
 1848 - Gold Rush
 1849 - Bach Society founded by William Bennet
 Industrial Revolution in Europe
 Growth of Capitalism and Socialism
 Crimean War (1854-1856)
 1857 - Second Great Awakening in America
 American Civil War (1861-1865)
 1863 - Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
 1865 - Lincoln assassinated
 1865 - Slavery abolished in America
 1867 - Alaska purchased
 1869 - Suez Canal opens
 Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
 1877 - Thomas Edison invents sound recording (phonograph)
 1881 - Tsar Alexander II assassinated
 1881 - President Garfield shot
 1881 - Panama canal built
 1886 - Statue of Liberty unveiled in New York
 1898 - Spanish-American War

 Mark Twain
 E.T.A. Hoffman

 1840 - first electric light bulb
 1876 - Bell invents the telephone
 1877 - Edison invents the phonograph, patented in 1878
 1883 - automobile motor patented by Daimler

Musical Characteristics
 Simultaneous development of musical extremes
 Basso continuo is not used
 Expansion of texture and increasing chromaticism
 Further development in performers virtuosity
 Two camps of compositional style Conservative  Mendelssohn, Brahms - Radical - Wagner, Berlioz, Liszt
 Gradual alteration of patent musical forms
 More complex harmonies, but same principles as in Classical style
 More subjective/emotional than Classical style
 Homophonic style still favored to a considerable degree
 Polythematic composition continues
 Dominated by a lyric melody  Wide, angular leaps become more common than before
 Known as the age of sentimentalits
 Melodic ornamentation of specific pitches decreases and appears in the larger context of florid melodic lines, sometimes including cadenza-like passages notated in smaller grace notes
 Increased use of unprepared dissonances
 Sequence use is still common (tendency toward modulating or chromatic sequences)
 "Functional" harmony continues but becomes richer, more complex, dissonant and chromatic ("coloristic" chords)
 Tonal progressions by thirds became common
 Wide usage of extended tertian chords
 Harmonic color assumes a greater importance
 Much emphasis on tempo rubato (used more often by solo performers than by ensembles)
 Tempos within a composition are typically more radically varied than in previous style periods
 Orchestras are expanded in all choirs
 Increased use of dynamic contrast within the phrase rather than between (more use of crescendo and decrescendo)
 Greater emphasis on text  through-composed
 portrayed harmonically
 emphasis on lyricism-solo song

 No more patronage system
 Included both nationalistic and individualistic musical styles
 The slave trade in the mid-19th century introduced West African rhythms, work songs, chants and spirituals to America, which strongly influenced blues and jazz

Principal Influences on Romantic Music
 Music of Beethoven
 Literature which dealt with the individual and nature and its grandeur
 Extreme emotions (especially of an altruistic or diabolical type)
 The visual arts (particularly the early French Romantic composers and the Spanish painter Goya with emphasis on Chiaroscuro

Romantic Church Music
 Return to subjectivity
 Rediscovered the music of Bach
 Influence of St. Cecilia's Society

Modern Orchestras/Opera Companies/Performance Halls
 1839 - The New York Philharmonic is established
 1881 - Boston Symphony Orchestra is established
 1882 - The Berlin Philharmonic is established
 1883 - The Metropolitan Opera House is established
 1891 - Carnegie Hall opens in New York
 1904 - The London Symphony Orchestra is established

 Plain-chant Musical
 Modern Concerto
 Sonata Form
 Song Cycle
 Chamber Music
 Symphonic (or tone) poem
 Romantic Sonata
 Art Songs
 Etudes and Character Pieces
 Opera  Verismo

Composers and Major Works
 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
 Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)
 Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
 Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868)
 Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
 Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) Anna Bolena (1830) opera
 Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835) Norma (1831) opera
 Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
 Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857)
 Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847)
 Otto Nicolai (1810-1849)
 Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
 Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
 Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
 Alexander Dargomitzhsky (1813-1869)
 Charles Gounod (1818-1893)  Faust (1859) lyric opera
 La Rédemption (1882)
 St. Cecilia Mass
 Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)
 César Franck (1822-1890)
 Anton Bruckner (1824-1896)
 Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
 Johann Strauss Jr. (1825-1899)
 Alexander Borodin (1833-1887)
 Prince Igor (1869)
 Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
 Symphony No. 3 (1883)
 Charles Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921)
 Theodore Dubois (1837-1934)
 Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)
 Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
 John Knowles Paine (1839-1906)
 In Spring (1880) first American symphony published in the United States
 Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)
 Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
 Antonín Dvo?ák (1841-1904)
 Emmanuel Chabrier (1841-1894)
 Marche française (1888)
 Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900)
 Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
 Charles Widor (1844-1937)
 Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
 Charles Hubert Parry (1848-1918)
 Vincent d'Indy (1851-1931)
 Charles Villiers Stanford (1852-1924)
 John Philip Sousa (1854-1932)
 Edward Elgar (1857-1934)
 Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
 Isaac Albéniz (1860-1909)
 Hugo Wolf (1860-1903)
 Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
 Edward MacDowell (1861-1908)
 Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
 Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
 Carl Nielsen (1865-1931)
 Paul Dukas (1865-1935)
 Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
 Violin Concerto in D Minor (1903)
 Belshazzar's Feast (1906)
 Erik Satie (1866-1925)

 Thomas Hasting (1784-1872)
 Franz Gruber (1787-1863) STILLE NACHT
 Lowell Mason (1792-1863)
 Joseph Mohr (1792-1849)
 Benjamin F. White (1800-1879)
 William Walker (1809-1875)
 Christian Harmony (1866)
 William Bradbury (1816-1868)
 John Mason Neale (1818-1915)
 Fanny Crosby (1820-1915)
 1827 - Episcopal Collection (American)
 1827 - Christian Year (John Keble)
 1832 - Methodist Collection (American)
 Caroline Vilhelmina Berg (1832-1903) "Day by Day"
 1836 - Collection of Sacred Hymns (Smith, Mormon)
 Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)
 Philip Bliss (1838-1876)
 Ira Sankey (1840-1908)
 1844 - Sacred Harp (White and King)
 1846 - A Book of Hymns (Johnson and Longfellow, Unitarian)
 1847 - The Baptist Hymnal (Buck, American)
 1849 - Seventh-day Adventist Collection (White, America)
 1849 - Lyra Catholica (Edward Caswell)
 Carl Boberg (1850-1940) "How Great Thou Art"
 1855 - Plymouth Collection (Beecher, American Congregationalist)
 1855 - Lyra Germanica (Catherine Winkworth)
 1866 - Our Own Hymnbook (Spurgeo, English Baptist)
 1868 - Hymns Ancient and Modern
 1868 - Church Book (American Evangelical Lutherans)
 1872 - The Hymnary (Sullivan, Victorian)
 1872 - European Psalmist (Samuel S. Wesley, Victorian)
 1890 - Moody Bible Institute opens in Chicago
 1892 - Dictionary of Hymnology (John Julian)
 1898 - The Church Hymnary (Stainer, Victorian)


No Modern Events
We were alive for most of this stuff, or learned it in school!

No people names, for the same reasons.

Musical Characteristics:

 Romantically subjective and programmatic
 High degree of refinement, delicacy and vagueness of form
 Open chords
 Prominence of 9th chords and new chord structures
 Whole-tone scale
 Free rhythms
 Wide spacing and extreme registers

 German reaction to French impressionism
 Sought to express the subconscious
 Emotionally oriented
 Harshly dissonant and atonal

 A return to pre-Romantic ideals of objectivity and clarity of texture
 Includes the revival of contrapuntal textures and forms from the Renaissance and Baroque, while employing modern harmony, rhythm, tonality, melody and timbres

 Pulse or Tramps music
 A desire to have complete control over the music
 Composers wrote exactly what should be performed with some latitude in the number of repeats
 A reaction to serialism
 Static harmonies
 Slow harmonic rhythm
 Repeated rhythmic and melodic motifs
 Tonal or modal harmonic progressions
 Little or no chromaticism
 Influenced by African, Eastern and Jazz music

Other Styles found in the Twentieth Century
 Aleatoric Music
 Musique Concrète
 Vaudville songs
 Modern Jazz (1950s-present)


Rhythm element dominates sound - appeals to the flesh
Talent over popularity
Hollywood influence
Voice over-takes instruments
Music imitated Ham's music
"Bop" - singing nonsense words
Jazz - combination of Japheth and Ham music
Swing & Dixieland bands
Used as a death note to Japheth's individuality and bridged Americans to Ham's music.

Andrews Sisters

Website Bibliography for more detailed information:

Today, ALL styles of music is available.  There is nothing new - neither Japheth, Ham or Shem is coming up with anything new.

Next Sermon - Part III - The Design of Absolute Music